Debian is one of the oldest and most established Linux distributions, having been created in close adherence to the GNU specification and in the spirit of Unix and open source free software. It has the advantage of being extremely stable and fast, and has a powerful APT package management mechanism and rich repositories that make it easy to install and smoothly upgrade software and systems without the hassle of compiling and installing and upgrading.
Debian systems currently use either the Linux kernel, originally created by Linus Torvalds and currently maintained by thousands of programmers around the world, or FreeBSD, an operating system that includes a kernel and other software.
However, work is underway to make Debian support other kernels, most notably Hurd, a set of daemons that run on a microkernel and provide a variety of different functions; Hurd is free software designed by the GNU Project.
Most of the basic tools in the operating system we have created come from the GNU Project; hence the names GNU/Linux, GNU/kFreeBSD and GNU/Hurd. These tools are also free.
Of course, what people really need are applications, the programs that help them do their jobs: from document editing, to e-commerce, to games and entertainment, to software development. A package manager and other tools to help you manage thousands of packages on thousands of computers, as easy as installing a single application. And all of this is free software.
It’s a bit like a tower: at the bottom is the kernel, on top of that are all the basic tools, then all the software you run on your computer. And finally, at the top of the tower is Debian – a careful organization and fit of everything so that it all works together in harmony.
Debian has always maintained at least three distributions: stable, beta, and unstable.
The stable version contains the most recent official Debian package release. As the official distribution of Debian, it is the one we prefer to recommend to users. The current stable version of Debian is version 9, codenamed stretch, which was originally released on June 17, 2017, with update 9.3 released on December 09, 2017.
The beta version contains packages that have not been included in the stable release for the time being, but which are in the candidate queue. The biggest benefit of using this version is that it has more versions of newer software.
Unstable releases house Debian’s current development work. Usually, only developers and those who like to live a thrilling life choose this version. Unstable versions are always referred to by the codename sid.
Debian usually releases a new stable version at regular intervals. For each stable release, users get three years of full support and an additional two years of long-term support.
Extremely stable, fast and easy to maintain Linux
Debian GNU/Linux is the paragon of Linux, its stable versions (Stable) are really quite stable and Debian is almost the first choice among the distributions in terms of ease of maintenance (installation/upgrade), and the quality of the system is so high that it is used on many production servers.
In general, Debian and CentOS are recognised as the most suitable operating systems for servers, and are much more stable than Ubuntu, if not more so. As long as there are no logical flaws at the application level, the system is essentially rock solid and can work year-round without rebooting, so Debian is highly recommended for stability-critical scenarios.